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  1. g et al. [62], auricular laser acupuncture was investigated for cessation of smoking on adolescent smokers. Three hundred thirty patients between the age of 12 and 18 years were divided into a laser acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group. 128 adolescents of the laser acupuncture group completed the study and were treated on the auricular acupuncture points Ershénmén (probably Shenmen), Kó (probably Mouth), Fèi (probably Lung), and Wàibi. One hundred fourty adolescents of the sham acupuncture group completed the study and were treated on the same auricular points but without any radiation.
  2. Phase 1, representing the original map of the inverted fetus, stands for normal physiology or acute pathology. In phase 2, the inverted fetus is represented in an upright position on the map and stands for degenerative conditions. Phase 3 shows the fetus in a transverse position and stands for subacute and chronic conditions.
  3. The Thalamus point is situated on the lower edge of the antitragus (Figure 10). This point is mainly used in combination with Shenmen and the Lung point in pain therapy [1, 53].
  4. According to Gori and Firenzuoli [9], modern auricular acupuncture is defined as “a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body’s dysfunction by stimulating acupuncture points on the external ear.” It is not based on TCM, but on the presumption of Paul Nogier that a somatotopic organization of the body is represented on the human auricle.
  5. ing the relation of laser as well as needle acupuncture to the blood flow. Substance P—a neurotransmitter and calcitonin-related peptide—and Nitric oxide—responsible for vasodilatation—seemed to play an important role in this mechanism [70].
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Methods for the measurement of the peripheral effect are(i)Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) and (ii)Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI). Auricular acupuncture is believed to have its effect by stimulating the vagus nerve at one of the Lung points on the auricle. This leads to a stimulation of the hypothalamus, which leads to the release of serotonin and further to an activation of methionine encephalin which inhibits the release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The inhibition of GABA causes an increase in dopamine. Hypothetically this mechanism reduces cravings and hereby supports the patient on his path to self-recovery [48]. Another important parameter is the beam area or the diameter of the beam (cm2). With one of these two parameters the energy density can be calculated if the output power and the time are stated. Even though the results show evidence in the treatment of chronic dermatoses with auricular acupuncture, the deficiency of information, and the small amount of patients give this study a poor quality. Unbihexium is expected to be the sixth member of a superactinide series and possibly a heavier congener of plutonium. In the superactinide series, the Aufbau principle is expected to break down due to relativistic effects, and an overlap of the energy levels of the 7d, 8p, and especially 5g and 6f orbitals is expected, which renders predictions of chemical and atomic properties of these elements very difficult.[39] The ground state electron configuration of unbihexium is thus predicted to be [Og] 5g2 6f3 8s2 8p1,[1] in contrast to [Og] 5g6 8s2 derived from Aufbau.

Latest magazines. Closer USA - February 17, 2020. 13.02.2020, 16:40. Classic Jaguar - February-March 2020. 13.02.2020, 16:20. Sport Fishing USA - March-April. Paul Nogier discovered this signal in 1966 assuming that there was a connection between the ear and the heart. Later, he realized that it was a response of the generalized autonomic nervous system. Bergamaschi et al. [100] investigated on 34 elderly patients the effects of auricular as well as body laser acupuncture with an ultralow-lever laser. The patients were divided into 3 reference groups. nine patients received auricular laser acupuncture, 9 patients received body laser acupuncture, and 16 patients received sham auricular acupuncture, hereby the laser stayed switched off. A semiconducting laser (product: BioliteLP020) with an output power of 0.03 mW was used. The irradiation was administered in 20 half-second flashes. The single point energy dose was about 0.3 mJ. The bioactive body acupuncture points were selected with a point finder. Instead of stimulating auricular acupuncture points auriculotherapy zones according to the Auriculoterapia Posturale secondo Scoppa method were stimulated. For the verification of the results, 4 balance tests were performed before treatment, right after treatment within 15 minutes of the first test, within 1 hour after the first test, and 3 days after the first test. The results showed an average improvement of 15% after the treatment and a long-term improvement of 5–10% 3 days after the treatment in body as well as auricular laser acupuncture.

Another example is Mediterranean sailors who wore their golden earrings on the central lobule of the ear not only for decoration but also for improving their eyesight [7–11].Only a few studies have been implemented on psoriasis vulgaris. So far, there is one survey that shows a therapeutic effect of auricular acupuncture in combination with a decoction of TCM [79]. There are two different locations of the Heart point in auricular acupuncture. According to the Western system, the Heart point is located in the antihelix whereas in the Chinese system it is situated in the hemiconcha inferior (Figure 9). In the last 20 years epilepsy, and especially drug-resistant epilepsy, has been successfully treated with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) [83].

An experimental study on Freudian concepts with special focus on so called alternative explaining models. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Functional theory of illusory conjunctions and neon colors Studies have shown that auricular acupuncture can be effective especially in the treatment of postoperative pain which would further result in a decrease of analgesic requirement. More studies should be conducted for more reliable and conclusive scientific evidence [55–57, 72, 74].

For a better understanding of auricular acupuncture, we will look at its history and development from two different perspectives: (i)ancient auricular acupuncture referring to the time before the 20th century and up to the 1950s, (ii)modern auricular acupuncture referring to the time when Paul Nogier rediscovered auricular acupuncture. Many studies provide poor information about the names or the exact locations of the treated auricular acupuncture points; mostly they only refer to the anatomical areas that had been treated. This lack of information is one of the problems in comparing the studies and makes it difficult to prove the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture [24, 47, 49, 69–73].

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  1. Auricular acupuncture has two main advantages versus body acupuncture in needling as well as in laser treatment; on one side auricular acupuncture is easier to apply because the patients do not need to get undressed and on the other side the stimulation is not as sophisticated as in body acupuncture [59].
  2. The results showed no significant effect of auricular laser acupuncture compared to sham acupuncture. In both groups around 21% of the patients stopped smoking after the first treatment. A three-month follow-up showed a complete cessation of 25% of 101 patients in the laser acupuncture group and 26% of 107 patients in the sham acupuncture group [62].
  3. al nerve carries the sympathetic fibers to the reticular formation where the information gets distributed to the corresponding brain structures.
  4. Taking into account that acupuncturists handle the laser equipment with care and responsibility, the advantages opposite the disadvantages in laser auricular acupuncture are outbalanced.
  5. dest nicht für die Leser.

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The VAS is a vasculocutaneous reflex that can be felt like a stationary wave of the pulse on the arterial wall (compare Figure 7). This pulse is the result of cardiac output and its rebound as the blood piles up against the arterioles and capillaries. It is a response and adjustment of the nervous system. Any stimulation of the skin by light, laser, heat, or touch can provoke the VAS. Es war wohl ihre Art von Humor. „Mach's neu! Hinschmeißen, umsteigen oder nur mal durchatmen? Welche Veränderung dich wirklich glücklich macht“, steht auf dem Cover des aktuellen „Neon“-Magazins. „Unsere Titelgeschichte dreht sich um eine große Frage des Arbeitslebens: Wie gelingt es, neu zu starten? Und wann ist es eine gute Idee, nicht nur den Job, sondern gleich den Beruf zu wechseln?“, schreibt Redakteur Johannes Mitterer im Editorial. Diese Frage können sich die 20 „Neon“-Mitarbeiter jetzt selbst stellen. Das Mai-Heft ist das vorletzte, das erscheinen wird. Am 18. Juni erscheint das letzte. Nach 15 Jahren stellt der Hamburger Verlag Gruner + Jahr „Neon“ ein. Das Lifestyle-Magazin zieht nicht mehr genug.Another Chinese publication reported a decrease in systolic as well as diastolic pressure in patients with hypertension after electric pulse stimulation. The total effective rate had been 90.7% [68].

The results show evidence of the impact of auricular laser acupuncture. However, the exact location and combination of the auricular points, further technical parameters, for example, beam diameter or energy density, and a definition of exclusion and inclusion criteria were missing. Further studies with higher sample size and a third nontreatment reference group should be conducted for further proof of the effect of auricular laser acupuncture. The lack of information makes it again difficult to reproduce this study. Like his Chinese colleagues, Paul Nogier carried on investigating. While Paul Nogier continued his work by looking at the auricular points from an anatomical point of view, Chinese scientists developed the Chinese system by looking at the functional connection between the auricular acupuncture points and their effects on the body. A spot on the neck vessel projection was stimulated by an HeNe laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, an output power of 25 mW, and a beam area of 0.2 cm2. The irradiation time was 5 min. There was no further information about the exact location of this spot. Despite the high amount of parasympathetic fibers of the vagus nerve, the auricle branch is the only peripheral branch of the vagus nerve. Thus, He et al. [20] theorized that auricular vagal stimulation can alter the autonomic as well as the central nervous system via the concha to the NTS and further on to the corresponding structures of the brain. They suggested the existence of an “auriculovagal afferent pathway.”

There are different methods of stimulating the ear points. The most common method is acupuncture. Hereby needles are used for the stimulation of the auricle. In former days people used fish bones, sharp stones, or bamboo clips as acupuncture material. Later, these materials were replaced with gold or silver. Today, the needles are made of high tensile stainless steel and coated in gold or silver. Gold needles are used for reducing (supplying) and silver needles are used for reinforcing (drainage). On the back of the ear they are applied the other way round. The needles stay in place for about 20–45 minutes.A review of Chen [46] showed that auricular acupuncture offers a vast field of applications. Fifty six kinds of illnesses including diseases of the respiratory tract, the circulatory system, the digestive system, the urinary system and the nervous system, diseases in the fields of otolaryngology, ophthalmology, dermatology, paediatrics, and gynaecology as well as acute abdomen, obesity, drinking, and smoking cessation were discussed in these studies. This review included retrospective as well as randomized controlled studies. Auricular acupuncture was effective in most cases especially in the treatment of hypertension, acute pain of the digestive system, dermatological diseases—like psoriasis, urticarial, or acne—and obesity. Due to the small amounts of treated people and randomized controlled (RCT) studies, the quality of this review is poor but still it shows that auricular acupuncture has the potential of being effective in many fields of medicine.In most of the studies, the Chinese Heart point and its considered effect on the cardiovascular system and vagal activity have been investigated [25–27, 31, 64–66]. Alternative Mechanism. With 2 Tab. (Received 1. 11. 85) 409 Buchbesprechungen 413 Heft 3 Ausgegeben im Mai 1987 U. NIEDERSEN: 100 Jahre Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie: Eine Zeitschrift konsolidiert einen Wissenschaftszweig. (Eing. 1. 7. 86; in rev. Fassg. 13. 8. 86) 41 Mechanical and electrical point finders (Figure 6) are also used for a more precise detection of acupuncture points. Mechanical point finders depend very much on the sensitivity of the patients which can often lead to distorted results, whereas electrical point finders supply more objective results by measuring the electrical skin resistance. Recently, point finders with laser have been applied for the identification of “reactive acupuncture points” as well [15, 22].

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  1. Adverse reactions happen very rarely in auricular acupuncture. So far, there have been reports neither on life-threatening reactions nor on irreversible or serious adverse events after acupuncture. Minor events can be local pain, local bleeding, or infections after needle acupuncture. There have been nine documented cases of perichondritis and one case of chondritis since 1980. In the worst case these diseases can lead to chondronecrosis or even deformation of the auricle. Out of these ten cases, eight patients received permanent needle acupuncture. Proper disinfection and regular inspection of permanent needles can help to avoid such side effects [40].
  2. The optical properties and the wavelength are the two main factors for the penetration of the laser light. It is believed that in body acupuncture the nociceptive structures lie 2-3 cm underneath the skin’s surface. To achieve this depth, the wavelength must be between 605 nm and 850 nm which can be reached by red and infrared lasers [103, 105].
  3. The word “Laser” is an acronym for “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.” The properties of laser such as its extreme monochromaticity, its polarisation, and its high coherence make the laser so unique and versatile [90].
  4. Besides inspection, palpation, and point detectors, the vascular autonomic signal (VAS) is also used for the finding of auricular points.
  5. The question of research needs to be clearly defined. On the basis of this research question, a proper study model shall be designed in order to achieve a meaningful result [106].
  6. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.
  7. The first and only attempt to synthesize unbihexium, which was unsuccessful, was performed in 1971 at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) by René Bimbot and John M. Alexander using the hot fusion reaction:[3][5]

Unbihexium - Wikipedi

Today, laser therapy is used in many fields of medicine apart from ophthalmology also in dermatology, otolaryngology, dental medicine, general surgery, and vascular surgery. Depending on the aim of the treatment lasers can be of high intensity or low intensity. According to the study of Litscher and Opitz [95], the dose range can be “from 0.001 J/cm2 (=Ws/cm2) to 10 J/cm2 (=Ws/cm2) and more.”Another important parameter for the quality of a study is the time period of the treatment and the follow-up. Birch [106] suggested a time period of at least 3 months, preferably one year. The length of periods can vary depending on the pathological conditions; longer durations are also suggested for studies on drugs and alcohol abuse [108]. This study was of good quality and it proved that auricular acupuncture has an effect on the microcirculation. It can be considered to have an effect on diseases caused by poor peripheral blood flow. Further studies should be performed on this subject.

Synthesis attemptsedit

Intervention (group 1): 5 mW helium‐neon laser, 15 s at each point (632.6 nm wavelength) at 6 acupuncture points around the wrist for 15 s at each point Comparator (group 2): placebo laser: Outcome Paul Nogier’s discovery of the inverted fetus being projected on the auricle is the basis of modern auricular acupuncture. As it is shown in Figure 4 the head with the brain structures are represented on the ear lobe; the spine runs along the antihelix. The inner organs are represented in the concha. The legs and the arms are represented towards the upper rim of the auricle. This somatotopic representation is often seen as a homunculus like it is known of the sensory cortex in the brain [16, 22]. Unbihexium has received particular attention in these investigations, for its speculated location in the island of stability may increase its abundance relative to other superheavy elements.[6] Any naturally occurring unbihexium is predicted to be chemically similar to plutonium and may exist with primordial 244Pu in the rare earth mineral bastnasite.[6] In particular, plutonium and unbihexium are predicted to have similar valence configurations, leading to the existence of unbihexium in the +4 oxidation state. Therefore, should unbihexium occur naturally, it may be possible to extract it using similar techniques for the accumulation of cerium and plutonium.[6] Likewise, unbihexium could also exist in monazite with other lanthanides and actinides that would be chemically similar.[4] Recent doubt on the existence of primordial 244Pu casts uncertainty on these predictions, however,[8] as the nonexistence (or minimal existence) of plutonium in bastnasite will inhibit possible identification of unbihexium as its heavier congener.

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Paul Nogier was born in Lyon in 1908. He was the son of a tenured professor at the Medical University of Lyon. After 3 years of studying physics, Paul Nogier went on to study medicine.In auricular acupuncture the most important anatomic structure is the auricle. The ear cartilage (lat.: cartilage auricularis) provides a supporting framework for the auricle and gives the auricle its funnel shape, while the ear lobe (lat.: lobulus auricularis) has no elastic cartilaginous part at all. Early interest in possible increased stability led to the first attempted synthesis of unbihexium in 1971 and searches for it in nature in subsequent years. Despite several reported observations, more recent studies suggest that these experiments were insufficiently sensitive; hence, no unbihexium has been found naturally or artificially.[4] Predictions of the stability of unbihexium vary greatly among different models; some suggest the island of stability may instead lie at a lower atomic number, closer to copernicium and flerovium. The Helium Neon (HeNe) laser, a low-level laser, was one of the first gas lasers. The medium of the laser is a mixture of Helium and Neon. In laser acupuncture, HeNe lasers have a wavelength of 632.8 nm [99]. He et al. and Ueno et al. [20, 21] suggest that the lesser occipital nerve supplies the skin of the upper and back parts of the auricle with fibers. Peuker and Filler [17] do not mention this nerve in their studies.

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Possible natural occurrenceedit

Research shows that laser acupuncture is still in its early stage of development and up to now only a small amount of different studies have been published. The scattering of the radiation is mainly caused by the filamentous proteins Keratin, which is found in the epidermis and responsible for the thickness of the skin, and collagen in the dermis. Melanosomes in the epidermis, cell nuclei, cell walls, and other structures can also have an influence on the scattering of the radiation. Classical acupuncture has its origin in TCM and it is believed to have been practiced for about 2,500 years. It is described as a medical treatment by inserting needles into the skin at specific points on the body. Further studies also showed a positive effect on combined therapies. For example, auricular acupuncture combined with carbamazepine treatment showed good results for alcohol withdrawals and combined with psychotherapy it was effective for drug patients [81, 82]. Recent studies with violet lasers have shown an effect on the blood flow velocity in the basilar artery by stimulating body acupuncture points. The penetration depth of the violet laser with a wavelength of 405 nm is about 1 mm [94].

In the study of Irnich et al. [110], sham laser acupuncture was conducted by deactivating the laser irradiation but not the red light or acoustic sound. In this case, sham laser acupuncture cannot be counted as a placebo treatment. It can only be treated as a placebo treatment if the laser stays entirely switched off. This must be clearly stated in the studies. The afferent fibers of the vagus nerve synapse in structures of the medulla in particular in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, medial reticular formation of the medulla, the area postrema, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the nucleus ambiguus. The majority of the vagal fibers lead into the NTS. Most of the information that is received by the NTS is spread to various areas of the brain such as the hypothalamus, the central nucleus of the amygdala, and other nuclei in the brainstem.

Auricular Acupuncture with Laser - Hindaw

Birch [106] believes in most cases sham acupuncture with needles is used under wrong assumptions. Sham treatment is often mistakenly equated to placebo treatment. The chosen sham acupuncture points are not necessarily used for treatment of the medical condition that is investigated; however, they can still have an impact on the body when they are needled. After the treatment 28 patients of the treatment group had no lesions left, in 6 cases 70% of the lesions were gone and only 2 patients had a cure rate of 30–70% of the lesions, whereas in the control group only 15 patients had a full cure of the lesions, in 14 cases 70% of the lesions were gone and only 30–70% of the lesions disappeared on 3 patients [118]. Most important parameters that should be considered in studies of auricular laser acupuncture are listed in the following. In this essay, we shall review from an historical perspective the development of our understanding of how the sun (the nearest star) shines, beginning in the following section with the nineteenth-century controversy over the age of the sun The TCD is a relatively new recording technique in acupuncture which is able to measure the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery, the anterior cerebral artery, the posterior cerebral artery, the supratrochlear artery, and the ophthalmic artery. The TCM Research Center in Graz developed a helmet for transcranial ultrasound investigations where the probe holder construction was situated at the “windows to the brain,” meaning transnuchal, transtemporal, and transorbital (Figure 15) [104].

In the Chinese study of Yao [117], 46 patients were treated for insomnia under the aspects of TCM. The treated auricular points were Shenmen, Endocrine point, Subcortex point, Brain point, Heart point, Kidney point, Spleen point, Stomach point, Liver point, and Kidney point. The laser instrument was a PU-1 semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 830 nm, an output power of 3 mW. The diameter of the laser beam was 2 mm. The irradiation time lasted for 1 minute. The treatment was once a day, 12 times with pauses of 5-to 7-day in-between therapy. The results showed that 69.5% of the patients (32 patients) were able to sleep for more than 7 hours, 28.3% of the patients (13 patients) were able to sleep between 5 and 6 hours. Auricular acupuncture had no effect on only one patient (2.2%). The total effectiveness was 97.8%. The amount of treatments and the time between treatments are very important parameters for reproducible studies in laser auricular acupuncture [109].


Und das „eigentlich“ war auch immer Programm: Eigentlich sollten wir, aber eigentlich wollen wir. Auf den Satz lassen sich viele Geschichten im Heft herunterbrechen. „Glück statt Karriere“, „Die Spielregeln der Liebe“, „Ist Arbeit verlorene Zeit?“, „Wovon lebst du eigentlich?“ „Leb' los“ lauteten die Titelgeschichten. So avancierte „Neon“ schnell zu einem Lebensratgeber der über 20-Jährigen, obwohl oder genau weil die gleichen Themen immer auf eine andere Art erzählt wurden („66 Fragen an die Liebe“, „Kannst du lieben?“, „Für immer verliebt“).The results show slight evidence on the effects of body and auricular laser acupuncture. For further evidence, more studies on this subject need to be conducted with a higher amount of treated patients, a definition of exclusion and inclusion criteria plus the medication of the patients should be taken into account.

Schikora [105] calculated that the power density had to be more than 1.3 W/cm2 for laser acupuncture to achieve the same effect as needle acupuncture. This study showed that a violet laser can have an impact on physiological neurovegetative parameters. However, there was no evidence that a violet laser had more effect on auricular acupuncture than on body acupuncture. Quite the contrary, the stimulation on Baihui showed more effect than on the Heart point. Further studies need to be carried out for further evidence.A microsystem is the projection of the whole body in its function and structure on certain parts of the body. In addition to the auricle microsystems can also be found on the scalp, the feet, the hands, and the iris. However, in both cases further investigations need to be considered to have more scientific evidence on the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris as well as verruca plana.

The time of radiation is also an important parameter in laser acupuncture. Most of the time it is in seconds (s). It is an important parameter for the calculation of energy density. The radiation time can last from 1 s to up to 100 s [37]. This site is only for demonstration purposes. All images are copyrighted to their respective owners. All content cited is derived from their respective sources.An HeNe laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, an output power of 2.5 to 3 mW, and a diameter of 1 mm was used for the laser stimulation. The auricular points were stimulated from a distance of about 1 mm for 60 s. The distance was chosen so that no pain or sensation could be felt. The treatment consisted of 12 sessions. Three sessions were given per week. Raphael Nogier, Paul’s son, pursued his father’s work and described him as “a man of innovative thoughts and productive action who listened to his patients, respected what they had to say and thoroughly investigated their maladies. He tirelessly examined his patients from Monday morning to Saturday evening” [7].

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In their survey on advanced auricular acupuncture, Frank and Soliman [67] explained the shifting of the location of the Heart point and the Chinese Shenmen according to the three phases which depend on the stage of illness. Acupuncturists need to have very good qualifications which have to be stated in detail in the study. If there is more than one acupuncturist involved in the study then they should receive special training in accordance with the study. Particularly in auricular acupuncture with needles the points have to be needled correctly otherwise the results have a higher chance of being distorted. However, the risk of falsified results decreases by using a laser [106].

A study in 1976 by a group of American researchers from several universities proposed that primordial superheavy elements, mainly livermorium, unbiquadium, unbihexium, and unbiseptium, with half-lives exceeding 500 million years[6] could be a cause of unexplained radiation damage (particularly radiohalos) in minerals.[4] This prompted many researchers to search for them in nature from 1976 to 1983. A group led by Tom Cahill, a professor at the University of California at Davis, claimed in 1976 that they had detected alpha particles and X-rays with the right energies to cause the damage observed, supporting the presence of these elements, especially unbihexium. Others claimed that none had been detected, and questioned the proposed characteristics of primordial superheavy nuclei.[4] In particular, they cited that the magic number N = 228 necessary for enhanced stability would create a neutron-excessive nucleus in unbihexium that might not be beta-stable, although several calculations suggest that 354Ubh may indeed be stable against beta decay.[7] This activity was also proposed to be caused by nuclear transmutations in natural cerium, raising further ambiguity upon this claimed observation of superheavy elements.[4] With a 75% share of all parasympathetic fibers, the vagus nerve has the highest influence on the parasympathetic system [32]. The outcome of this study did not show any difference of the withdrawal duration inbetween the reference groups. The needle acupuncture treatment seemed to have more efficiency than laser acupuncture treatment. However, there was no difference between sham and laser acupuncture. There was no information whether the sham acupuncture was applied with an entirely switched off laser or the laser irradiation was just deactivated. The authors see the cause for this insufficient result in the small number of patients, the different degrees of severity of diseases induced by long-term alcohol abuse, the different pharmacological management of withdrawal, and unequal provision of care [119]. The somatotopic mapping also reveals an embryological pattern of the organs. As you can see in Figure 5, organs originating from the ectoderm are presented on the ear lobe and the tragus, organs originating from the endoderm on the concha, and mesodermal organs on the remaining part of the auricle [16]. In 1966, Paul Nogier discovered that the radial artery pulse showed a reaction to the stimulation of the auricle. Assuming that this response involved the ear and the heart, he called this response “Reflexe Auriculocardiaque.” Later when he realized that this response was caused by the autonomic nervous system, he changed its name to vascular autonomic signal (VAS). This reflex or signal can be explained as a vascular reaction to the stimulation of the skin. With this unique vascular reflex auricular therapy advanced into auricular medicine, a system for advanced diagnosis and treatment.

Extended periodic table - Wikipedi

  1. The output power is the power level of the laser light. Its unit is given in milliwatts (mW). In laser acupuncture, the applied dose depends on the output power of the laser. The higher the output power the higher the power density influences the depth of penetration. The designation of average output power is also very important especially when using a pulsed laser [95].
  2. In studies of auricular laser acupuncture a placebo treatment can be simulated easier than in studies of acupuncture with needles.
  3. Low-level lasers (LLL) are the most commonly used lasers in body acupuncture as well as auricular acupuncture. They are defined by wavelengths between 300 nm and 10,600 nm, power densities between 10−2 W/cm2 and 100 W/cm2, and energy densities between 10−2 J/cm2 and 102 W/cm2. The wavelength of a laser is defined by its laser medium which can be gaseous, fluid, solid, or semiconducting [98].
  4. Unbihexium is predicted to be a chemically active superactinide, exhibiting a variety of oxidation states from +1 to +8, and possibly being a heavier congener of plutonium. It is predicted to be the second element with an electron in a g orbital, a consequence of relativistic effects seen only in heavy and superheavy elements. An overlap in energy levels of the 5g, 6f, 7d, and 8p orbitals is also expected, which complicates predictions of chemical properties for this element.
  5. The inspection and palpation of the auricle are primary steps for the detection of “reactive points.” Abnormalities like swelling, blushing, desquamation, or tenderness can be signs of pathological conditions in the body.
  6. In 1982, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched international working groups with the aim to facilitate teaching, research, and clinical practice of auricular acupuncture all over the world. In 1990, a standardization of auricular acupuncture was established by introducing 3 criteria. An auricular point had to have an international and a common name, its therapeutic value had to be proven, and its location on the auricle had to be generally accepted. Thirty nine auricular points fulfilled all 3 criteria; 36 points failed one or more of the criteria. Finding an agreement on these issues was a very important step in the development of auricular acupuncture. Due to different approaches of French and Chinese auricular acupuncturists, there is still a lot of discrepancy on certain auricular points and their mappings [8, 10, 13, 14].

Auricular acupuncture is a method which has been successfully used in various fields of medicine especially in the treatment of pain relief. The introduction of lasers especially low-level lasers into medicine brought besides the already existing stimulation with needles and electricity an additional technique to auricular acupuncture. This literature research looks at the historical background, the development and the anatomical and neurological aspects of auricular acupuncture in general and auricular laser acupuncture in detail. Preliminary scientific findings on auricular acupuncture with laser have been described in detail and discussed critically in this review article. The results of the studies have shown evidence of the effect of auricular laser acupuncture. However, a comparison of these studies was impossible due to their different study designs. The most important technical as well as study parameters were described in detail in order to give more sufficient evidence and to improve the quality of future studies.This point is used in the treatment of pain relief in combination with other auricular acupuncture points including Shenmen [53]. In the last decades auricular as well as body acupuncture had been a very common method to help people to lead a life without tobacco. White et al. [88] published a large review of smoking cessation both in auricular as well as in body acupuncture. Although this study showed that the effects of acupuncture were not better than other methods of smoking cessation, the authors pointed out that there is evidence of the effect of acupuncture and further bias-free studies need to be conducted in order to prove these effects. A new method of auricular electro acupuncture, called “Smokex-Pro,” has been previously developed. A recently conducted study showed that after the treatment 47.9% of the patients stayed abstinent for at least 2 years [89]. An extended periodic table theorises about chemical elements beyond those currently known in the periodic table and proven up through oganesson, which completes the seventh period (row) in the periodic table at atomic number (Z) 118.As of 2020, no element with a higher atomic number than oganesson has been successfully synthesized; all elements in the eighth period and beyond thus remain.

In order to achieve a higher grade of comparability the different technical and study parameters discussed previously have to be stated accurately. Furthermore, study designs of the same subject need to be reconciled with each other. To achieve meaningful and comparable results, further studies following these proposals need to be conducted. Further studies need to be conducted for more evidence. Due to the lack of information, a reproducibility of this study is very difficult. Auricular acupuncture is a method which has been successfully used in various fields of medicine especially in the treatment of pain relief. The introduction of lasers especially low-level lasers into medicine brought besides the already existing stimulation with needles and electricity an additional technique to auricular acupuncture. This literature research looks at the historical. The auricle branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) supplies the concha, mainly the cavity of the conchae, and most of the region around the external auditorial canal according to He et al. and Ueno et al. [20, 21]. Peuker and Filler [17] found the ABVN also in the concha but mainly in the cymbia of the conchae and also in the antihelix.Today, there are many publications on acupuncture but only a few on auricular acupuncture. When you search for the term “acupuncture” in the scientific database PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov/), more than 18,300 publications are found, while only 836 publications show up when you search for the term “auricular acupuncture.”

Besides a Lung point the NADA determined further auricular points which presumably help not only drug addicts but also patients with alcohol problems during their protracted withdrawal. Research showed that patients described amongst others feelings of wellbeing and relaxation, peacefulness and harmony, reductions of anxiety and drug consumption. However, the craving for drugs and alcohol remained and the effects were only temporary [43]. Acupuncture is based on the principle of Qi. Qi can be described as a vital life force. According to TCM, you inherit Qi when you are born and you obtain Qi by breathing and eating during your lifetime. Qi flows in energetic pathways or channels in the human body—the so-called meridians. They form a meridian system which partially relates to the internal organs and their physiological and pathological conditions. Along these meridians, energy comes to the surface through a series of acupuncture points. They serve as tunnels or access routes to the deeper meridian system. A dysfunction of the Qi can be restored by stimulating these acupuncture points [3–5].

As with the other early superactinides, it is predicted that unbihexium will be able to lose all eight valence electrons in chemical reactions, rendering a variety of oxidation states up to +8 possible.[2] The +4 oxidation state is predicted to be most common, in addition to +2 and +6.[1][17] Unbihexium should be able to form the tetroxide UbhO4 and hexahalides UbhF6 and UbhCl6, the latter with a fairly strong bond dissociation energy of 2.68 eV.[40] It may also be possible for unbihexium to form a stable monofluoride UbhF. Calculations suggest that a diatomic UbhF molecule will feature a bond between the 5g orbital in unbihexium and the 2p orbital in fluorine, thus characterizing unbihexium as an element whose 5g electrons should actively participate in bonding.[15][16] It is also predicted that the Ubh6+ (in particular, in UbhF6) and Ubh7+ ions will have the electron configurations [Og] 5g2 and [Og] 5g1, respectively, in contrast to the [Og] 6f1 configuration seen in Ubt4+ and Ubq5+ that bears more resemblance to their actinide homologs.[2] The activity of 5g electrons may influence the chemistry of superactinides such as unbihexium in new ways that are difficult to predict, as no known elements have electrons in a g orbital in the ground state.[17] However, there is still no evidence on a successful treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder or anxiety neurosis [76]. In Europe, the VAS became another method used for finding “reactive” auricular points. Hereby, practitioners use the radial artery pulse for its detection. VAS also allows the identification of treatable points which are not painful but still show a dysfunction of the body. Studies which investigated the effects of auricular acupuncture on pathological conditions often used a combination of auricular acupuncture points and other auricular or even body acupuncture points. A laser can have pulsed or continuous waves. There is the assumption that pulsed laser light can “interfere with other pulsing biological phenomena” which would make a continuous waved laser a better option for laser acupuncture treatment. As mentioned previously, it is important to calculate the average output power when using pulsed lasers [95].

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INTRODUCTION. In 1873, Runge described in an article the etiology and treatment of the writer's cramp (Schreibekrampf), a painful elbow condition at the lateral epicondyle.The pain can radiate distally into the forearm and often results in a weak grasp. Despite a multitude of possible pathological entities, an overuse of the wrist extensors is often cited as the major factor for the. Gruner + Jahr stellt das Magazin NEON ein, es soll künftig nur noch digital erscheinen. Aus der beliebten Rubrik Unnützes Wissen entstanden Bücher und Spiele Auricular acupuncture with laser has also the advantage that it takes less time than with needles [37]. Introduction. The food industry has unequivocally established itself as an important revenue generating sector (Khan, Cheong, & Liu, 2018) while depending on a variety of sources for raw materials.Marine organisms, due to their abundance and diversity, constitute a vital source of supply for this thriving industry In 2001, the first “laser needles” were invented at the University of Paderborn in Germany, with the trade name Laserneedle (Figure 14). Since then, many new developments of these laser needles evolved. This semiconducting laser instrument is equipped with up to 10 laser needles and has the ability to work on different wavelengths, mainly red (685 nm), infrared (788 nm), and violet (405 nm) [95].

Das Magazin gefiel rasch und vielen. Zu seiner besten Zeit – 2011 – hatte sich die Auflage auf 237.000 Ausgaben verzehnfacht. Mit „Neon“ wuchs eine neue Generation an Journalisten heran. Einige der Autoren sind heute beim mehrfach ausgezeichneten „Süddeutschen Magazin“. Allen voran die „Neon“-Gründer Timm Klotzek und Michael Ebert, die nun dort die Chefredakteure sind. Zwei Jahre vor dem Wechsel hat Klotzek noch die Zeitschrift „Nido“ für junge Eltern gegründet.Studies on drug and alcohol dependencies used a combination of auricular points suggested by the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) including Shenmen, Sympathetic point, Kidney point, Liver point, and Lung point [43, 44, 48]. The Gallium Arsenide (GaAr) laser is also one of the most commonly used semiconducting low-level lasers. Its standardized wavelength is 940 nm in laser acupuncture [99].

The unit of the energy density is watt-seconds per cm2 (Ws/cm2), which equals Joules per cm2 (J/cm2). The energy density is the treatment dose and states the amount of energy supplied per cm2 for the time of irradiation [95]. The wavelength is one of the most important technical parameters in laser acupuncture. Its unit is expressed in nanometers (nm). A laser can have a wavelength spectrum between 240 nm and 3,000 nm. In laser acupuncture the lasers have wavelengths between 405 nm and 904 nm (Table 2). Lasers with wavelengths over 785 nm are infrared lasers in other words invisible light lasers. The wavelength is not only responsible for the coloring of the laser light but also how deep the laser light penetrates through the skin. For example, the red laser light with a wavelength of 685 nm has a penetration depth of about 4 cm [95, 103, 104].

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  1. 1Frank Bahr Research Group “Auriculomedicine and Pharmacopuncture”, Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering, Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, and the TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria
  2. Studies investigating the effects of auricular acupuncture on the autonomic nervous system tested either the Heart point or the Lung point individually or in comparison to body acupuncture points. Both points have their locations in the concha, the area which is innervated mainly by the vagus nerve [25–28, 64, 65, 68]. There are also studies investigating the effect of Shenmen on anxiety compared to other auricular acupuncture points or body acupuncture points [58, 61].
  3. Dabei hat es so gut angefangen. 2003 erschien das erste Magazin mit Nora Tschirner (damals noch MTV-Moderatorin) und dem Schauspieler Benno Fürmann auf dem Cover und einer Auflage von 27.000 Heften. „Eigentlich sollten wir erwachsen werden“, lautete der Leitspruch des Hefts.
  4. According to He et al. and Ueno et al. [20, 21] the greater auricle nerve (GAN) innervates both surfaces of the lower part of the auricle whereas Peuker and Filler [17] find additional innervation of the GAN in the tail of the helix and the scapha.
  5. These aforementioned studies have shown that auricular acupuncture can be used in many fields of medicine and there is evidence of its effect. However, the lack of information, the small sample size, and the difference in study parameters give most of the studies a poor quality and make them difficult to compare. For more significant evidence, further investigations need to be conducted.
  6. It has been suggested that patients with diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed patients, or weakened patients suffering from chronic diseases should not receive permanent needle treatment [41].
  7. The auricular points were stated in numbers 82, 83, 87, 51, and 55. According to Rubach [37], point number 82 is Point Zero, number 83 is the Anxiety point, 87 is the Stomach point, 51 is the Vegetative point I, and 55 is Shenmen. These points were stimulated with a semiconducting Argon laser with a wavelength of 540 nm, an output power of 100 mW, and a beam area of 0.05 cm2. The irradiation time lasted for 10 s per point.

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Only 14 publications investigated specifically the effects of auricular acupuncture with laser. In the following 10 of these studies will be discussed in detail; the remaining 4 studies were either in Russian or Chinese and were not taken for further evaluation. In this region of the periodic table, N = 184 and N = 228 have been suggested as closed neutron shells,[32] and various atomic numbers, including Z = 126, have been proposed as closed proton shells.[a] The extent of stabilizing effects in the region of unbihexium is uncertain, however, due to predictions of shifting or weakening of the proton shell closure and possible loss of double magicity.[32] More recent research predicts the island of stability to instead be centered at beta-stable isotopes of copernicium (291Cn and 293Cn)[25][33] or flerovium (Z = 114), which would place unbihexium well above the island and result in short half-lives regardless of shell effects.

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Due to the different nomenclatures in auricular acupuncture, the name and the exact location of the points need to be stated clearly in studies. Support nonprofit science journalism. Science's extensive COVID-19 coverage is free to all readers.To support our nonprofit science journalism, please make a tax-deductible gift today Gao et al. [65] conducted a study testing the effects of a violet laser on heart rate, heart rate variability, and mean arterial blood pressure on anaesthetised rats by stimulating two body acupuncture points (Baihui (GV20) and Zusanli (ST36)) and the Heart point situated on the inferior concha of the auricle. The points were stimulated separately with a continuous waved laser (product: Conrad Electronic, SE) with a wavelength of 405 nm and an output power of 1 mW. The irradiation time lasted 2 minutes. The blood pressure was measured via a polyethylene catheter on the left common carotid artery connected to a blood pressure transducer and amplifier. The mean heart rate and the heart rate variability were monitored with an electrocardiogram (ECG) and measured before, during, and after the stimulation. Ancient auricular acupuncture is a treatment based on the stimulation of acupuncture points on the auricle. These points were believed to be connected to the meridians and used empirically for certain treatments mainly for pain relief. They, however, were not part of an acupuncture system limited to the ear but part of a system covering the whole body [8, 9]. The treatment was applied daily until the end of withdrawal symptoms. Besides the acupuncture treatment, patients received Clomethiazole or in case of intoleration benzodiazepines on an individual basis. Other medications were kept unchanged for the time of the study.

„Aber ihr seid zu wenige geworden. Denjenigen, die sich verabschiedet haben, sind nicht genügend Jüngere gefolgt“, schrieb die aktuelle „Neon“-Chefredakteurin Ruth Fend in ihren Abschiedsworten. Mit dem Magazin war es ebenso stark bergab gegangen, wie es anfangs bergauf ging. „Neon“ verkaufte zuletzt wieder nur 58.000 Stück.According to the European Norm (EN 60825-1), low-level lasers are classified as “3R” lasers equivalent to the old classification “3b,” meaning that radiation can be a risk of serious damage to the eye. To avoid this risk, the patient and acupuncturist should wear special glasses during the treatment. Laser as well as the treatment room must be marked specifically [10, 102].The stimulation can either be on low frequency (2 Hz) or high frequency (100 Hz) depending on the pathological issue.

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This section covers recent studies of auricular acupuncture which were conducted either by acupressure, needling, or electro acupuncture. Studies on auricular laser acupuncture will be treated later on separately. 50 Best Albums of 2018 2018 was all about bold new voices breaking out of the margins and being heard — from Latin-pop party-starters to feminist guitar heroes to a new school of hip-hop.

Berühmt ist das Heft auch für seine kleinen Rubriken geworden. Das unnütze Wissen („Delfine sprechen sich gegenseitig mit Namen an“), die Straßenbefragung, die es auch im aktuellen Mai-Heft noch gibt (Diese Woche: Wovon träumst du? Antwort von Alex, 28: „Ich träume nicht oft. Ich sollte vorm Schlafen mehr Käse essen – davon lernt man angeblich träumen“) und die „ehrlichen Kontaktanzeigen“, die mehr die Schwächen der Singles hervorhoben als die Stärken („Das sagt der Ex: mörderstur, selbstbeweihräuchernd, lebt vom Wäscheständer“). Abgerundet wurde alles mit Reportagen, deren Maßstab die Reportagen des Mutterblatts „Stern“ waren.It should not remain unmentioned that in 1991 a mummy named Iceman or Ötzi was found in the Ötztaler Alps in South Tyrol. Scientists believed that the Iceman was about 5,200 years old. His body showed tattoos on the locations of classical acupuncture points. Due to the strong evidence that was found Dorfer et al. [6] hypothesized that a medical system similar to Chinese acupuncture already existed in Central Europe over 5,200 years ago. This leads to the conclusion that acupuncture originated in the Eurasian continent and is nearly 2,000 years older than it was believed to be. Earlier models suggested the existence of long-lived nuclear isomers resistant to spontaneous fission in the region near 310Ubh, with half-lives on the order of millions or billions of years.[34] However, more rigorous calculations as early as the 1970s yielded contradictory results; it is now believed that the island of stability is not centered at 310Ubh, and thus will not enhance the stability of this nuclide. Instead, 310Ubh is thought to be very neutron-deficient and susceptible to alpha decay and spontaneous fission in less than a microsecond, and it may even lie at or beyond the proton drip line.[3][24][29] A 2016 calculation on the decay properties of 288-339Ubh upholds these predictions; the isotopes lighter than 313Ubh (including 310Ubh) may indeed lie beyond the drip line and decay by proton emission, 313-327Ubh will alpha decay, possibly reaching flerovium and livermorium isotopes, and heavier isotopes will decay by spontaneous fission.[35] This study and a quantum tunneling model predict alpha-decay half-lives under a microsecond for isotopes lighter than 318Ubh, rendering them impossible to identify experimentally.[35][36][b] Hence, the isotopes 318-327Ubh may be synthesized and detected, and may even constitute a region of increased stability against fission around N ~ 198 with half-lives up to several seconds.[33] Recent studies on body acupuncture suggest that “Deqi” sensation can also be achieved through laser acupuncture. In the studies the patients identified the “Deqi” sensation as a heavy sense or an electrical current or a feeling of an ant bite [94, 115].

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High-intensity (level) lasers have the ability to cut, destroy, or cauterize tissues due to their thermal effect whereas the effect of low-intensity (level) lasers (LLL), also called “soft laser” or “cold laser,” is believed to be caused by the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the tissue. It has been shown to be effective in wound healing, musculoskeletal pain, and rheumatoid arthritis as well as in laser acupuncture [90, 91]. Auricular acupuncture has also been used for the treatment of verruca plana or flat warts. This randomized work showed a statistically better outcome in the treatment group than in the control group [80].

With the exception of 2 studies, different subjects were investigated which made it difficult to compare the results of the publications with each other in order to find sufficient evidence of auricular acupuncture with laser.With this technique, it is possible to measure metabolic and circulatory changes of the brain. Hereby the fMRI uses the magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin to identify changes in their concentration in the blood [104]. However, a comparison of the results is not given because of the small amount of studies, different subjects of research, and different study approaches. Studies in the past have often shown low quality due to insufficient and different levels of information. The results showed an increase in the β-endorphin level and according to the BDI-FS a positive mood in the patients. The authors believe that an increase in the β-endorphin levels is linked to an increase in the mood and consequently a reduction of alcohol withdrawal [73]. Hou et al. [50] investigated the effects of auricular laser acupuncture on 35 patients suffering from eczemas, on 46 patients suffering from urticaria, on 41 suffering from fascial cosmetic dermatitis, and on 25 patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. The auricular acupuncture points Shenmen, Urticaria, and Subcortex were stimulated with a semiconducting AlGaAs laser each for 3 minutes. There was no further technical information of the laser. The whole treatment consisted of 2 sessions. Each session had a 5-minute treatment with intervals of 3-4 days inbetween. Medical treatment of antihistamine and corticosteroid was discontinued and a serum IgE level was determined before and after treatment. Only in the cases of eczema and urticarial, the IgE levels decreased after the treatment. The symptoms of all four dermatoses, however, improved significantly.

Auricular acupuncture is often used as an adjunctive treatment, for example, during withdrawal therapies or for pain relief. It has shown that patients treated additionally with auricular acupuncture required less medication which further leads to a reduction of side effects and secondary diseases and consequently results in a decrease of costs [54–57, 72, 74]. According to He et al. and Ueno et al. [20, 21] the auriculotemporal nerve innervates the anterosuperior and the anteromedial areas of the auricle (see also Table 1). This involves the crus and the upper part of helix body, the antihelix, the triangular fossa, and the tragus. Peuker and Filler [17] found the auriculotemporal nerve solely in the crus and the upper part of the helix.Risk of serious damage to the eye can be reduced drastically or even erased by cautious use of the laser instrument and also the wearing of safety glasses during the treatment.The quality of this study was low. For a reproduction of this study, the nomenclature of the points and its localization should have been described according to the nomenclature of the WHO [14]. The details of the technical parameters were imprecise. It is also questionable whether with a distance of about 1 mm the laser acupuncture can have the same effect than by placing the laser needle directly on the skin.

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Mix Play all Mix - Sorrow TV YouTube; r/choosingbeggars Top Posts of All Time - Duration: 11:27. Sorrow TV 5,049,746 views. 11:27. r. He et al. [29] hypothesize that auricular acupuncture can also be a possible treatment for epileptic seizures just as the VNS therapy. Clinical trials showed that auricular electroacupuncture led to a decrease of frequency and severity of seizures. The efferent fibers of the vagus nerve lead to the heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, and kidneys [20, 33].

While in the past practitioners used their thumb to palpate the VAS, nowadays it can also be detected with bidirectional Doppler ultrasonography [11]. Bei NEON findest du Stories, die ans Herz gehen, Videos, die dich zum Lachen bringen und Meinungen, die dich beschäftigen. Bevor du im. In TCM the “Deqi” sensation is a signal to confirm the correct positioning of the needle in body acupuncture. “Deqi” can be seen as a benchmark of efficient acupuncture. It has been described as a feeling of numbness, prickling, flowing, or heaviness around the acupuncture point. Acupuncturists can make the “Deqi” sensation more perceptible by rotating or moving the needle back and forth during the therapy. In auricular acupuncture patients have described the “Deqi” feeling as a warm sense on the ear during treatment [45, 114]. As a result of the technological progress not only the range of treatment has expanded but also have the methods used for stimulating the acupuncture points developed from metal needles over electroacupuncture to laser acupuncture [2].

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King et al. [51] investigated on 80 healthy subjects whether laser auricular acupuncture can reduce pain or its threshold. Eighty healthy subjects with regard to the exclusion and inclusion criteria were chosen to take part. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups, an experimental group which received laser treatment on Shenmen, Lung point, Wrist point, and Dermis point and a control group which received sham acupuncture on the same points but without the laser being activated. Each point was stimulated for 30 s. For the stimulation of the acupuncture points, a continuous waved HeNe laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, an average power of 1 mW and a peak power of 1 mW was used. For the simulation of the pain an electric electrode was fixed on the left wrist of the subjects. There was no further information on the technical parameters such as power density, energy density, or the diameter of the laser beam. In 71% (29 subjects) of the experimental group there was an increase in the threshold of the pain whereas in the control group the increase was only 33% (13 subjects). The survey of Oleson et al. [22] investigated the theory by examining patients with musculoskeletal pain. In 75.2% of the cases there was an accordance between the conventional medical diagnosis and the auricular diagnosis. It is believed that the reaction of the ear is caused again through neurological pathways. In normal conditions, the ear is “electrically silent,” but under pathological conditions the ear turns “electrically active” [16]. Das Lifestyle-Magazin Neon wird nach 15 Jahren eingestellt. Mit ihm verschwindet das gedruckte Wir-Gefühl einer ganzen Generation von heute über 35-Jährigen. Ein Nachruf

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